Introduction de l’analyse financière à la GED : une entrée en la matière enrichissante

Cette année, la Grande école du droit s’est enrichie d’un nouveau cours destiné aux GED2 : l’analyse financière. L’introduction de cette matière est un vrai atout et apparaît comme une composante logique de notre formation tournée vers le droit des affaires. Le cours de business law nous offrait une approche, en anglais, du droit des affaires en général et en particulier, de toute la réglementation qui encadre les entreprises. L’économie et le management de l’entreprise nous permettait d’apprécier la façon dont sont gérées les entreprises et désormais, l’analyse financière nous permet progressivement d’appréhender et d’interpréter les résultats de leur activité.

Ce cours est dispensé par Mr Chikaoui, professeur agrégé d’économie et de gestion, qui nous a enseigné les bases de cette matière très pratique destinée à interpréter l’activité des sociétés. Ainsi, cette matière nous apprend à calculer les résultats des entreprises et à étudier les composantes de leurs bilans pour déterminer par exemple si l’entreprise est en déficit, en équilibre ou en excédent ; puis à comprendre les raisons de ces résultats, en conclure les solutions à adopter, et les techniques de financement à favoriser par exemple. Cette matière est particulièrement utile pour de jeunes affairistes en devenir car elle nous permet de comprendre les dessous des choix des entreprises, ce qui les motive, voire d’entrevoir la façon dont les techniques d’optimisation financière sont mises en place.


Ainsi en pratique, l’analyse financière s’apparente à de la comptabilité d’entreprise, le tout dans une ambiance participative ou chacun donne et discute des résultats, ce qui permet de garder une dimension « ludique » et d’appréhender de manière agréable une matière qui au premier abord pourrait sembler complexe de par son nom barbare et les problématiques qu’elle aborde. En effet, l’approche qui nous est donnée de l’analyse financière est pratique, pertinente, ciblée sur les notions et points importants de la matière tout en restant adaptée à notre niveau.

Le cours d’analyse financière apparaît vraiment comme une plus-value conséquente pour notre diplôme car il permet l’extension de notre domaine de compétence, ce qui est particulièrement important pour tout juriste ouvert puisqu’un bon juriste va se distinguer par sa capacité à toucher à tout et appréhender des matières qui ne sont pas uniquement juridiques. En conclusion : l’analyse financière a fait une entrée réussie dans la GED par l’intérêt qu’elle a suscité et le plus qu’elle représente pour les élèves.


Zoé Paponneau (GED2)

The Business Law Class

We know that the Grande Ecole du Droit is in constant evolution. The content of the diploma is getting thicker as we go deeper into the practice of law and the discovery of large fields of studies. It happens early during the curriculum and I believe it is a chance. Several new classes were introduced this year, such as Financial analysis and Business law.

The business law class was built entirely by Professors Harris and Magnier last summer. Me and the other GED2 are the first ones to experience it – thus, we are sort of ‘pioneers’. I admit that to me, it has been a huge surprise. The class is divided between the two professors: while Professor Harris puts the focus on the vocabulary and the analysis of business law related articles, Professor Magnier studies business law cases with us, such as the BNP Paribas case or the Google case.

During the first semester we studied Globalisation, European Law with the impact of the ECJ, European Competition and Regulation, Business ethics and shareholders value. It was very interesting, and far more than a simple introduction to Business Law. The class gave us the keys and tools to understand the course in its globality. Moreover, because Business Law is one of the biggest assets of the Grande Ecole du Droit, I am convinced that discovering it throughout the second year is perfect timing. Thanks to that, we have the information we need to choose our anticipated Master courses in the best way. Therefore, it allows us to secure the coherence of out project.

We also had the opportunity and honour to have an alumnus (and now the co-director) of the Grande Ecole du droit give us an introduction to Tax law, which was absolutely awesome. Tax Law being one of the most interesting but also blurriest fields of law, it was great to have a short glimpse of what it is. We studied Google’s complex financial package, which was pretty hard to grasp, but it was thrilling to understand such complex concepts! I think we wouldn’t have understood it if the course had taken place at the beginning of the semester. It was perfectly fit in the rest of the course: every element is there to give us the understanding of Business law in general.

As I said, this new Business Law course is a real chance for us. As it is taught by great teachers, it is a true asset for the students and a great window to the Business world in a legal point of view. During the second semester, we will focus on multinationals and tax issues, creditors’ rights and bankruptcy, intellectual property and environmental issues. These will be taught by our professors, but also by alumni or external teachers.

I can’t wait to discover those subjects with professors Harris and Magnier and I know that they will be very interesting and fulfilling.

Dorian Revillon d’Apreval, GED2

The Economist Rapper

When I learnt that every second-year student from the Grande École du Droit would be following a new « Economy and Corporation management » course, taught by Jean-Philippe Denis, a renowned teacher, I must admit that I was rather skeptical at first. Indeed, I did not think it would be very useful for the law students that we are. Besides, as I did not like this subject when I was in high school, I feared that the course would be boring. And I was completely wrong.


All GED2, Véronique Magnier and Stéphane Baller   ©Christophe Rabinovici

Indeed, this course was not about calculating the GDP of a given country, or measuring the impact of an economic phenomenon on a given population, such as indebtedness. We had to think about abstract issues which are key to understand economy and its deep, yet hidden, relationship with law. We became aware that we were all part of a lot of different organizations: a friendship, our university, the economic market… You may wonder how is this statement related to economy and law, but the answer is very simple: it appears obvious that organizations are first imagined in abstracto. Once they are realized and “built”, it is up to the law, and to the rules it provides, to become their pillar and to ensure it does not collapse through regulations.

I can certainly understand that you might feel a little lost right now, as I was lost myself at the beginning of the class! However, this kind of conceptual elements are essential to understand how the “baby lawyers” that we are must deal with legal issues in our everyday life.

Now that I have made a little overview of the purely academic content of the course, I must talk about the most interesting part, which is… the professor and his innovative pedagogy! In order to give you an insight of his personality, I will give you a little fun fact : Professor Denis is very famous in France for having chosen a quote from the French rapper Booba as an exam subject (yes, a rap song as an exam)! In class, he frequently referred to French and American rappers, such as Jay-Z, to explain the notions, and he often showed us movies and videos to support his arguments. We understood that economy (and law) were absolutely everywhere, even in Hollywood movies. We were offered another way to perceive law and the world around us, and I think it is a real advantage of the GED.

The exam was very thrilling and stimulating as well. Professor Denis asked us to write a kind of article about the “Kerviel Case”, that we had to present in front of the class. Jérôme Kerviel was a trader accused of diverting funds from the “Société Générale”, who was discharged in September. In order to motivate us for this difficult task (and I assure you that it truly was), he told us that the best paper would be published on The Conversation, a real research website. You can imagine that it is much more rewarding than a good grade! And … I am quite proud to say that our group, composed of Ariane EDERY, Nina Ravine VA and I won!

This task was really challenging, perhaps the most difficult of the entire semester, but I thought it was extremely interesting to make us look at a case from another point of view.

Overall, although I was really doubtful at the beginning of the year, this course was the one I believe to be the most interesting and the most useful in the whole semester, as it helped us to form a legal reasoning in a totally different way from any other lecture, and any GED student should realize how lucky he is to have such a good teacher!

Timothée FORET (GED2)

Why we chose financial market law

Tom Guélimi (GED 3)

Just like any third-year student at the Grande Ecole du Droit, I had to choose two courses of M1 in business law to study before leaving on my LL.M. During the first semester, I followed the international private law course (you can find Maxime François’s article on this course below) but this semester, I decided to go with financial law. Basically, it’s the law of the markets on which investment services are offered and operations take place. These are all under the control of a national entity, in France the AMF.

This area of the law has become particularly important and interesting after the financial crisis of 2007 because of all the efforts that were put in the regulation of the financial markets. But aside from the fact that this subject is fascinating and very stimulating intellectually, why should you chose this course for your second semester?

First of all, everyone starting in this class feel like they’re being spoken to in a completely different language which makes you at the same time very curious but also a little bit stressed about the final exam (an oral exam by the way, beware). Indeed, you will feel as if you were part of a special group allowed to understand how the world of finance works and the feeling of uneasiness actually quickly goes away after a couple of classes.

Second, the professor teaching financial law is amazing (in a good and a bad way, trust me). Professor Paclot often says “If you understand what I am saying, I must not have been clear enough”. He actually is quite clear most of the time and manages to make very complex situations or rules of law sound very simple. Even better, he does not hesitate to criticize the judicial decisions or the applying rules of law. However, you should not join this course if you do not like to participate because he might test you on your general knowledge from time to time.

Finally, this course, if you choose to accept it, can be a major asset in your academic background since very few students attend it (average of 20 students) and even fewer students have the chance to take this course during their third year. As I have mentioned before, this is a very complex and modern area of the law and it embraces a lot of fields of business law so it may become handy in your future career.

I hope I haven’t spoiled you anything and have left you curious enough to join the course. Good luck to you and may the law be with you.


© Christophe Rabinovici

Santiago Ramirez (GED 3)

I have to admit that selecting my Master 1 courses wasn’t an easy task for me. Indeed, when it comes to choosing courses, I believe that it’s essential to combine your personal tastes with a coherent academic project. During the first semester, I decided to study ‘Corporate Taxation Law’. It was a strategic decision, since ‘General Taxation Law’ is taught during the second semester of the third year of LL.B. As a result, at the end of my third year, I will benefit from a strong knowledge of French taxation law.

For the second semester, it was a much trickier question. I was eager to study almost every courses … However, I decided to discover the mysterious world of the financial markets. It was a logical choice. On one hand, I’ve always been interested in economy and finance. On the other hand, financial law isn’t taught in every French universities, and it’s an emerging subject in the legal field.

But Santiago, why should I choose financial law?!

Well, because you will understand the bases of a key sector of our modern economy.

Every day you hear about the results of the “CAC 40” or the “Down Jones“. Many companies around the world rely on financial markets in order to fund their activities. Since the financial crisis of 2007/2008, everyone has heard of ‘subprimes’, ‘swaps’ and other weird names of financial products. In France, the Kerviel scandal (which lead to an epic lawsuit), renewed the touchy debate surrounding the wrongdoings of the financial world. However, who understands anything of this whole mess?

The course of Financial Law, taught by Professor Y. Paclot, sheds some light on these issues. Financial law focuses on the regulation of both uses of financials services and the relationships between the protagonists who operate within this sector. It would be quite difficult to explain you in details what do we learn during these weekly classes, so I’d rather tell you why I don’t regret my choice.

This class enabled me to acquire a better comprehension of what are the financial markets, why do they exist, what are their functions, why are they essential, who are the key actors in this field, why regulation is a significant role for the states etc. Most importantly, it’s really interesting within a legal point of view to demystify what is seen by everyone as an evil and gloomy world. Studying financial law gives you the tools to develop your personal opinion on financial markets.

Moreover, Pr. Paclot perfectly handles its subject and explains tough principles in simple ways:

“You all know Canada Dry right? It almost tastes like alcohol, but it’s soda. Well, it’s the same thing with hedge funds. They are almost companies but they’re not: they don’t have a complete legal personnality”.

To finish this article which is getting way too long, I will be more academic. Financial law is a fascinating subject because it completely blends many legal areas. Every time we must refer to our knowledge in corporate law, constitutional law, public law, european law, criminal law, but also (and mainly) to general civil law. I would say that financial law is an advanced use of contract law and property law. Today, I realize why during my entire second year each one of my professors used to repeat that we will use contract law in every legal field. ‘Forward contracts’, ‘usufruit’, or ‘conditional obligations’ are legal notions that now make more sense to me.

At the end of the day, financial law is a complex course because we barely have expertise in finance, but also because this legal area uses other legal concepts with a much more technical approach. Nonetheless, it is probably what renders this subject exciting.

At the beginning of the semester, it was pretty funny and reassuring to see that the twenty fourth-year students of the Master 1 were as much lost and troubled as Tom and I felt. Unfortunately, I guess that the upcoming final exam will be less funny.

SantiaGuél (GED 3).

American Contract Law, an original and unique teaching

If you’re tired of the theoretical courses of French law schools, the course “American Contract Law” is made for you!


Professor Fred Einbinder © Christophe Rabinovici

Today’s topic is about Contract Law, or a very original course that makes the Grande Ecole du Droit so unique.

Indeed, during the second semester of our second year at the Grande Ecole du Droit, we attend classes of American contract law (in English of course) taught by the American Professor Einbinder, lawyer at the Illinois Bar. Through courses and also presentations given by students every week, Professor Einbinder gives us the opportunity to explore the nuances of American Contract Law and compare them with French Contract Law.

But what made this course so exciting for us, GED students — or as he likes to call us, “GEDi students” — was the mounting of a mock trial out of a very famous case in the United States on Mergers & Acquisitions: Texaco, Inc. v. Pennzoil Co.

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Why choose competition law ?

Last year, because I was doing my Business and Finance law Masters 1 by anticipation, just like every third-year student in the Grande Ecole du Droit, I had to choose one elective course each semester in Business and Finance law to complete the requirements of the Masters degree.

While I had chosen commercial law for the first semester, I wanted something really new for the second semester. I figured that competition law would be the one, given that I heard lots but did not know a thing about it. Let me just say that it was a great choice, I absolutely do not regret it and it helped me a lot during my LL.M !


Baya Hariche speaking at an EY event – © Christophe Rabinovici

The only negative point I remember about this course was its hours : we had class on Mondays from 5 to 8pm. Not a big deal when you love what you are doing, right ? That was not exactly my opinion at the time but let’s move to the teacher and the content of the class.

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My choice of Environmental Law

As you know, third-year students of the Grande Ecole du Droit attend Masters’ 1 courses (4th year) by anticipation during their 3rd year. Every student can choose one course by semester, among a wide range of classes. I chose to attend the Environmental Law course.

I have always been interested in the environment. In my future professional life, I want to work with scientists and environmental law seems to me the perfect balance between law and science. Therefore, I chose to attend this course, having no precise idea of what I would discover. But no more suspense, here is what to expect if you choose this course.


Chart of UN Sustainable Development Goals (Source : Wikipedia)

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Why I’m glad I chose Space and Media Law as a Masters’ 1 subject

As a Grande Ecole du Droit’s student, a chance was given to me to choose a Master subject while doing my last year of Bachelor degree. Without any doubt, I chose the one named “Droit des activités spatiales, des télécommunications et des médias” directed by Pr. Philippe Achilleas, who is also teaching in the GED course.

Claire Coutoula, writer of this article, recommends this course.

Claire Coutoula, writer of this article, recommends this course.

Concerning the form of this class it is obvious that it is totally different from the one taught in the GED track. In fact, it is popular enough to gather at least 100 students. That is to say that the class is less interactive, but there is still a possibility to interrupt the professor and to ask questions at the end.

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Intellectual Property Law class!

Hi everyone,

I am currently studying at Hong Kong University in the LLM program Information Technology and Intellectual Property Law, and the purpose of this article is to provide you with some recommendations about which Master’s 1 courses to choose.

For my third year in the Grande Ecole du Droit, I had to select two Master’s 1 courses, and with no surprise I chose the Intellectual Property Law class! My other choice was Private International Law for the first semester, but I invite you to read the interesting article about this class written by Maxime Claude Nersès FRANCOIS, and I will only focus on the Intellectual Property Law course.


Gaëlle (in blue) with other Grande Ecole du Droit students at an EY event – © Christophe Rabinovici

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Choose Business Criminal Law

I’ve wished to write an article about the Business Criminal Law module – in French, Droit Pénal des Affaires – because it was one of my favourite lessons during my third year at the Grande Ecole du Droit.

As you can guess, Business Criminal Law is about Criminal Law, applied to the business world. In other words, it deals with crimes, fraud, or each criminal offense “which [is] characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and which [is] not dependent upon the application or threat of physical force or violence” (US Department of Justice, FBI). I am speaking about theft, possession and sale of stolen goods, bribery, money laundering and at lot of incriminations which are aimed at punish cunning, well-educated and sometimes very talented white-collar criminals.

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